Problem & Context
The Cambodian labor force in the primary sector, mainly
agriculture, has decreased from 85 to 55 percent over the last two decades.
Globalization has seen increase of employment and higher productivity in modern
manufacturing, notably the garment industry and in urban services, replacing
much of Cambodia's agricultural heritage. The services sector is now defined by
poverty wages, exploitative short-term contracts and forced and bonded labor.
Further, those that attempt to organize, associate and collectively bargain meet
violence and criminal charges.
Cambodia is witnessing an influx of approximately 250,000
new workers into the job market each year and this will continue in the coming
years due to its young population. This has resulted in an increase in
Cambodian migrant workers seeking better wages. Human and labor trafficking has
consequently become commonplace with Cambodian migrant workers encountering
modern-day slavery, abuse and even death during employment abroad.
 CSES2004 Study from the National Institute of
 Kingdom of
Cambodia (MoLVT/ILO), Policy on Labor Migration for Cambodia, June (2010), p.9.